Are you confused by terms that educators use? The ASCD Lexicon of Learning might be what you need.
One reason why students do poorly in mathematics problem solving tasks and on achievement tests is a lack of good reading, comprehension, and writing skills.
Therefore, Assisting Readers is designed to provide resources that should help you, if your K-12 students are struggling with reading and language arts, or if you'd just like to better connect math to reading.
What is the most effective approach to reading instruction?
The Common Core Standards require changes in approaches to instruction for English Language Arts and Literacy, as well as for mathematics. In Common Core Standards: Starting Now, David Liben and Meredith Liben (2012) provided strategies and resources related to implementing the ELA-literacy standards, beginning with a recommendation to read the standards themselves. Anchor standards for reading include the role of text complexity, in which they noted that syntax plays a role in understanding complex text. "A solid academic vocabulary is essential not only to reading complex text successfully, but also to becoming proficient at writing, speaking, and listening" (Academic Vocabulary section). Students will need to expand the scope of their reading to include more informational texts.
According to Sally Shaywitz and Bennett Shaywitz (2007), "Effective reading instruction and intervention programs provide children with systemic instruction in each of the five crucial components of reading," which are phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension strategies (p. 75). In Teaching Children to Read, Gregory Camilli, Sadako Vargas, and Michele Yurecko (2003) concluded, "Systematic phonics instruction when combined with language activities and individual tutoring may triple the effect of phonics alone" (Abstract section). G. Reid Lyon (2003) further noted:
On the basis of a thorough evidence-based review of the reading research that met rigorous scientific standards, the National Reading Panel (NRP), convened by the NICHD [National Institute of Child Health & Human Development] and the Department of Education, found that instructional programs that provided systematic instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, guided repeated reading to improve reading fluency, and direct instruction in vocabulary and reading comprehension strategies were significantly more effective than approaches that were less explicit and less focused on the reading skills to be taught (e.g., approaches that emphasize incidental learning of basic reading skills). The NRP found that children as young as four years of age benefited from instruction in phonemic awareness and the alphabetic principle when the instruction was presented in an interesting and entertaining, albeit systematic manner." (p. 3)
For teaching vocabulary, Robert Marzano (2009) provided a six-step process to better instruction. The first three steps can be used when introducing new terms. Steps 4-6 can be done in any order and are for reviewing and reinforcing new terms:
In their review of research on reading programs, Robert Slavin (2009) and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins University found that for struggling readers, phonics instruction is particularly important; however not sufficient. What works best includes:
Valerie Chrisman (2005), who conducted a study of California's primary and secondary reform program schools, reported on the benefits of teaching academic English to students learning English as a second language and for those who were academically below grade level. Teachers in successful schools "presented instruction that directly reinforced the students' understanding of how the English language works instead of teaching students conversational English" (p. 19). They taught students how to use root words, suffixes, prefixes, and verb endings and believed this focus on academic English gave all their students an advantage on the state test.
Districts might consider the Four-Blocks® Literacy Model, which incorporates four different approaches to teach children how to become better readers, writers, and spellers: guided reading, self-selected reading, word study, and writing. Canton City Schools in Ohio adopted this model for curriculum alignment for reading instruction, and tied Ohio's academic content standards closely in classroom instruction. They used technology for whole class instruction, and adopted the engaging, adaptive technology content of Riverdeep's Destination Success (Reading and Math) program, all of which contributed to a substantial increase (124%) among grade 3 learners in passing the Ohio Achievement Test for Reading at one of its elementary schools (Eaton, 2005). [Readers should note that Riverdeep merged with Houghton Mifflin in 2006 and the company later became known as Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, which sells Riverdeep products.]
Richard Allington (2007), past president of the International Reading Association, shared another view on assisting struggling readers. He proposes intervention all day long, as new hope for struggling readers, rather than the current situation in many schools where struggling readers are provided 30–60 minutes of appropriate supplemental reading instruction with a reading specialist. Students "then spend the remaining five hours a day sitting in classrooms with texts they cannot read, and that cannot contribute to learning to read, let alone contribute to the learning of science or social studies" (p. 7), and, I would add, any other content area.
Allington (2007) noted that "too often, the texts in students’ hands are appropriate for the highest achieving half of the students" and "only the best readers have books in their hands that they can read accurately, fluently, and with understanding. All students need texts of an appropriate level of complexity all day long to thrive in school. Once we have a more differentiated set of curriculum materials, then we might expect a better balance of whole-class, small-group, and side-by-side lessons. While all students benefit from small group and side-by-side teaching, it is the struggling readers who seem to benefit most, perhaps because they have the greatest need for explicit teaching and scaffolded, personalized instruction" (p. 13).
For a three-tiered response to intervention program for reading in the primary grades, Gersten et al. (2009) made the following recommendations:
Visit the DIBELS Homepage
The University of Oregon is home to the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) to assess reading progress. DIBELS is "a set of standardized, individually administered measures of early literacy development. They are designed to be short (one minute) fluency measures used to regularly monitor the development of pre-reading and early reading skills." Download the materials for free, along with instructions for administering and scoring.
The University of Oregon also has posted 5 Big Ideas in Beginning Reading, along with resources for addressing each: phonetic awareness, the alphabetic principle, fluency with text, vocabulary, and comprehension.
The issue of teaching reading is compounded when reading digital content, which "introduces nonlinear options for proceeding through texts," according to Gina Biancarosa (2012, p. 25). Elaborating on this issue for struggling readers, she stated:
On one hand, it gives readers access to background knowledge, definitions of unfamiliar terms, efficient location of relevant information through the use of search tools, and motivating choices for personal inquiry. On the other hand, gaining proficiency in digital reading is no means automatic. (pp. 25-26)
As grade 3 is thought to be a transition grade between learning to reading and reading to learn, Biancarosa (2012) recommended "reading instruction after 3rd grade should target skills, strategies, and behaviors that research has identified as central to reading in digital environments" (p. 26). Such skills would include teaching search strategies and text structures of informational websites so that learners can find their own background information on a topic rather than relying on the teacher to provide it, how to gather relevant information from targeted reading, and how to gain efficiency when reading digital content, as reading online is slower than reading digitally for deep meaning and developing higher-level literacy.
Buy additional resources via CT4ME.
The Amazon widget below shows books using the search phrase: math stories. You can also use the widget to search with other key words. Suggestions include:
Center on Instruction: http://www.centeroninstruction.org/ contains publications and presentations on reading, the research syntheses, and exemplars of best practices in reading arranged by grades K-3, grades 4-12, special education, and English language learning.
Early Reading Info: http://www.earlyreading.info/ from the Pacific Regional Education Laboratory, this website is designed to help classroom teachers and grant writers find resources for preK-3 in five reading components. These components (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) are consistent with the Reading First initiative.
Education Commission of the States Reading/Literacy: http://www.ecs.org/html/issue.asp?issueid=97 contains selected readings and research, programs and practices, and more. One such document is Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read, which includes the findings of the National Reading Panel Report. This booklet provides analysis and discussion in five areas of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension. Each section suggests implications for classroom instruction.
English Biz: http://www.englishbiz.co.uk/index.html Pages at this site are devoted to writing better essays and writing to inform, persuade, argue, describe, explain, review, and so on. Punctuation, grammar essentials, and better spelling are included. Parts of this site are devoted to English literature for secondary learners.
Florida Assessments for Instruction in Reading: http://www.fcrr.org/FAIR_Search_Tool/FAIR_Search_Tool.aspx This search tool from the Florida Center for Reading Research will provide K-5 instructional materials in multiple categories, such as for phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and so on. You'll also find interventions for struggling readers among teaching and learning resources: http://www.fcrr.org/interventions/Interventions.shtm
Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies that Work (2nd ed.). Stenhouse Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.stenhouse.com/productcart/pc/viewPrd.asp?idproduct=310&r=sb070426t
This book is completely online and written for those who wish to "explicitly teach thinking strategies so that students become engaged, thoughtful, independent readers." There are four parts. As described at the web site:
International Reading Association: http://www.reading.org has numerous resources on topics and issues as adolescent literacy, beginning readers, children's and young adult literature, critical literacy, language and cultural diversity, No Child Left Behind, reading assessment and comprehension, struggling readers and writers, teacher education, technology, and urban education initiatives.
KidsAndReading: http://www.kidsandreading.co.uk/technology-kids-reading.html from the UK contains numerous articles for helping children to learn and enjoy reading. Also find classroom methods, tools and techniques, reading games, printable puzzles, and more. The section on encouraging your child has suggestions for books for boys and girls and teens and helpful tips. A special concerns section deals with learning to read when learners have ADHD, autism or dyslexia, are struggling readers, have parents who cannot read, or have English as a second language.
Learning First Alliance: http://www.learningfirst.org/ is a partnership of 12 educational associations that have come together to improve student learning in America's public elementary and secondary schools. Through the website, visitors may download Every Child Reading: An Action Plan, and Every Child Reading: A Professional Development Guide, which provide reading tips for parents, teachers, and schools.
Lexile Framework for Reading: http://www.lexile.com/ Help connect your students to books of interest based on the students' reading levels. "The Lexile Framework for Reading is a scientific approach to reading and text measurement. There are two Lexile measures: the Lexile reader measure and the Lexile text measure. A Lexile reader measure represents a person’s reading ability on the Lexile scale. A Lexile text measure represents a text’s difficulty level on the Lexile scale. When used together, they can help a reader choose a book or other reading material that is at an appropriate difficulty level. The Lexile reader measure can also be used to monitor a reader’s growth in reading ability over time." There is an extensive database, also with books for educators on mathematics teaching and learning.
Math and Reading Help for Kids: http://math-and-reading-help-for-kids.org/article_directory/Reading.html This site is an American Library Association corporate member. While there are several sections at this site, the reading section "covers several age groups ranging from early childhood to high school. Topics range from building strong literary skills to suggested reading lists for all age groups."
National Institute for Direct Instruction: http://www.nifdi.org/ According to the NIFDI, "Direct Instruction (DI) is a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning." NIFDI has a comprehensive collection of information of DI research.
Promoting Reading Strategies for Developmental Mathematics Textbooks: http://sharepoint.chiles.leon.k12.fl.us/lcsreadingstrategies/Reading%20Strategies%20for%20Math%20Teachers/Reading%20Strategies%20for%20Math%20Textbooks.pdf by Anne E. Campbell, Ann Schlumberger, and Lou Ann Pate of Pima Community College presents three reading and study strategies designed to facilitate student comprehension of and learning from developmental mathematics textbooks. The discussion includes a preview, predict, read, and review reading strategy; concept cards; and a Question Answer Relationship technique. For example, concepts cards can include definitions, characteristics, examples, and nonexamples. Common kinds of concept cards in math include: (a) strategy cards for solving problems; (b) fact cards that include rules, laws, or theorems; and (c) cards for symbols and specialized vocabulary.
Reading Resource.Net: http://www.readingresource.net/ Stephen Griffin and Katie Appel provide free resources and materials for teaching children with dyslexia or other reading difficulties to read. They say, "We can explain why children can't read and tell you what you can do to improve their reading skills. Whatever you are seeking, be it reading strategies, teacher resources, reading activities or just a better understanding of the causes of dyslexia and reading problems themselves..."
ReadWriteThink.org: http://www.readwritethink.org/, supported by the National Council of Teachers of English, is devoted to free standards-based resources for reading and language arts instruction. It also contains resources for high school students. The ReadWriteThink Webbing Tool is particularly useful "free-form graphic organizer for activities that ask students to pursue hypertextual thinking and writing. The tool provides a quick way for students to trace out options and rearrange connections. Students can use the Webbing Tool to analyze readings as well as a prewriting activity and flowcharting tool." Activities using the tool are provided. The graphic organizer can also be used for math activities and is freely available. Results can be printed. A site search reveals several classroom resource lessons for elementary grades exploring math and literacy.
Reading is Fundamental: http://www.rif.org/ contains resources for parents and educators, including articles on the latest reading research, books, activities, web resources, advice and tips.
SpellingCity.com: http://www.spellingcity.com/ Along with learning to read and write well is the need for learning to spell. This site enables students to practice spelling with their own personalized lists, rather than just random spelling words. Students can see their list in flashcard format, hear them spoken by a real human voice, play games with the words, and even take practice spelling tests. The site also has a database of over 37,000 words and eight spelling games. It was selected for a Parents' Choice Recommended Award in 2008.
Tankersley, K. (2005). Literacy strategies for grades 4–12: Reinforcing the threads of reading. ASCD. Available: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/104428.aspx
ASCD has made available the Introduction, Chapter 1 on Struggling Readers, Chapter 5 on Higher Order Thinking and a study guide for this 202-page book. Effective strategies for improving reading skills are provided, along with suggestions for doing well on high stakes tests (see this latter in chapter 5). Supporting Web site links for additional information are provided throughout. The author's Web site is http://www.threadsofreading.com/ Threads of reading include phonetic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, comprehension, and higher order literacy (i.e., reading for analysis, synthesis, interpretation, and evaluation).
Consider linking mathematics to literature.
There are some good resources on the WWW:
Math in Children's Literature is brought to you by Nancy Padak, Ohio Literacy Resource Center, Kent State University. Concepts include addition, counting, estimating, fractions, geometry, graphing, measurement, money, multiplication and division, and number sense. This is a highly recommended extensive list to consider for early childhood and elementary grades.
Mathematics: Making a Literature Connection. Linda McCardle of lindaslearninglinks.com provides a collection of books for use with elementary grades sorted by concept. Concepts include sorting, counting, addition/subtraction, time, fractions, measurement, money, and graphing experiences. She includes activities for using most of the books within the classroom.
For a full list of programs to consider for what works for struggling readers based on Slavin (2009) and colleagues' review of research, see http://www.bestevidence.org/reading/strug/strug_read.htm . Slavin, Cheung, Groff, and Lake (2008) also present effective reading programs for middle and high schools, several of which are noted below. See their report at http://www.bestevidence.org/word/mhs_read_Jul_2008_RRQ.pdf.
Accelerated Reader: http://www.renlearn.com/ar/ from Renaissance Learning has research evidence for its effectiveness, such as that noted at What Works Clearinghouse and the National Center on Student Progress Monitoring. Students choose books at their reading level; this computer-managed program helps assign those readings, then provides quizzes to help monitor students' reading performance and vocabulary growth; immediate feedback is provided. Students do not work directly on the computer, however. For a discussion on Accelerated Reader see Slavin, Cheung, Groff, and Lake (2008).
Book Adventure: http://www.bookadventure.com/ "is a FREE reading motivation program for children in grades K-8. Children create their own book lists from over 7,000 recommended titles, take multiple choice quizzes on the books they've read, and earn points and prizes for their literary successes. Book Adventure was created by and is maintained by Sylvan Learning," according to the website.
BrightStar Reader: http://www.brightstar-learning.com/ from BrightStar Learning is an internet-based "game-like program that improves reading fluency and focus by enabling reluctant, slow, dyslexic readers to effortlessly and automatically recognize sight words. The BrightStar Reader also helps those who have been diagnosed with dyspraxia or visual attention deficit disorders" (What is BrightStar Reader? section). The program is recommended for learners at least 8 years old. An assessment suite helps to customize the program to the individual and there is progress tracking. There is a fee for this program.
Failure Free Reading: http://www.failurefree.com/index.php, a research-based program, targets and is most effectively used with At-Risk and English as a Second Language Students, nonreaders, Special Education students with severe learning difficulties and others in the lowest 10% of the reading population.
Fast ForWord: http://www.scilearn.com/ is a product of Scientific Learning designed for K-12 students who are reading below grade level. "The Fast ForWord program develops brain processing efficiency through intensive, adaptive exercises." The program is based on more than 30 years of neuroscience and cognitive research.
FreeReading.net: http://www.freereading.net is a free, sequential, research-based reading intervention program for K-1 students and those at risk in later grades. It's based on open source technology. It also provides a forum where teachers can openly and freely share their successful and effective methods for teaching reading in grades K-1 and for at-risk students in later grades. [Note: The program is on the approved list of K-3 curriculum resources in Florida.]
istation (formerly Imagination Station): http://www.istation.com/ is a comprehensive internet based reading and intervention program that helps ensure students reach their reading potential through continuous progress monitoring and layered instruction and intervention. It is designed for students in grades preK-5, including English Language Learners and at-risk students.
Lexia Reading Software: http://www.lexialearning.com/ The What Works Clearinghouse rates this program, which is from Lexia Learning in Concord (MA), as “potentially positive” for comprehension and alphabetics, based on data from three studies involving 314 students in kindergarten and 1st grade. See the WWC report for additional details.
Mindplay: http://www.mindplay.com/ software is for struggling readers, including mainstream students, ESL, ELL, and students with learning disabilities (e.g., dyslexia, ADD,and ADHD). It's award-winning and based on scientifically-based research.
Plugged Into Reading: http://www.pluggedintoreading.com/ is a reading program by Dr. Janet Allen for middle and high school students, which can be used with struggling or reluctant readers as well as proficient readers. There are three-levels for learning: teacher directed, peer-supported, and self-directed. Print-based and recorded books (currently on CD or cassette) are included, along with teacher and learning support materials.
QuickReads: http://quickreads.org/ from Pearson is a research based program for students in grades 2-6, designed to increase fluency, automaticity, and comprehension. Text length corresponds to grade-level reading rate for 1 minute.
Reading Rockets: http://www.readingrockets.org offers strategies for kids who struggle, strategies for teaching reading, books, free reading guides, reading research, blogs about reading, PBS shows on reading, and so much more.
Read 180: http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/read180/ This research-based intervention program from Scholastic is for students in grades 4-12 whose reading level is below proficient. Students using Read 180 have shown gains at least double the equivalent control groups. For a discussion on the research for Read 180 see Slavin, Cheung, Groff, and Lake (2008).
Read Now Power Up!: http://www.renlearn.com/rnpu/ combines the technology of Renaissance Learning with the instructional materials and books of Steck-Vaughn. This intervention program is designed for struggling readers in grades 5-9.
Reading A-Z: http://www.readinga-z.com/ has over 1000 leveled books in multiple genres spanned across 27 levels of difficulty. Books and resources are correlated to the Common Core Standards and primarily for K-6, although they can be used with a "range of grade levels in special education and special needs, remedial reading, ESL, and ELL" (About section). Guided reading lesson plans, worksheets, and assessments are available. There are resources for phonics, fluency, vocabulary, poetry, assessment, and the alphabet. Order online.
Read:OutLoud: http://www.donjohnston.com/ is one part of Don Johnston's Solo Literacy Suite, which is research based and designed for readers in grades 3-9 (interest level grades 3-12), learners who are below grade level in reading, or those with individual education plans. It features an accessible text-to-speech reader, vocabulary support that reads a word aloud along with its definition, a multicolor highlighting function, and a pacing strategy to allow learners time to build comprehension. Teachers can use it to differentiate and customize instruction using templates. Pricing packages are available at the web site.
ReadWorks.org: http://www.readworks.org/ is a "FREE, research-based, and Common Core-aligned reading comprehension curriculum for grades K-6." ReadWorks delivers "lesson plans directly to teachers online" and "provides over 1,000 non-fiction reading passages with question sets to support reading activities."
Sesame Workshop: http://www.sesameworkshop.org
Starfall.com: http://www.starfall.com, a free site designed to teach children how to read. Select one of the online books with its associated activities.
StudyDog: http://www.studydog.com/ is designed for K-6 struggling readers. There is also a free online placement test that is appropriate for children Pre-K through 1st Grade, and struggling readers in 2nd and 3rd grades.
Success for All: http://www.successforall.org/ The Reading Edge is the reading component of the Success for All Middle School program. See Slavin, Cheung, Groff, and Lake (2008) for discussion on its effectiveness.
Success Maker Enterprise: http://www.pearsonschool.com/ from Pearson Education was rated by the What Works Clearinghouse as “potentially positive” for its affect on students’ comprehension and general literacy skills, based on data from three studies involving 450 students between the ages of 9 and 16. See the WWC report for additional details.
Superkids Reading: http://www.superkidsreading.org/ from Rowland Reading Foundation (WI) is primarily for grades K-2. It integrates learning to read, write, and spell and features explicit, systematic phonics and multimodal instruction. Studies of effectiveness have been conducted.
Text Project: http://www.textproject.org/students/ offers free, downloadable informational books for students with summer reads, a beginner series, talking points for kids, and read-aloud favorites.
Thinking Reader: http://www.tomsnyder.com from Tom Snyder Productions is based on principles of universal design. This researched-based program is suitable for struggling readers in grades 5-8 and learners with special needs. "The program presents core, authentic literature—the books your whole class reads—in a highly motivating and supportive environment. It embeds prompts, hints, model answers, and instant feedback into the text to provide individualized instruction. Students practice and master 7 scientifically proven reading comprehension strategies while they read" (Thinking Reader Product Description, para. 1). These strategies are summarizing, questioning, clarifying, predicting, visualizing, feeling, and reflecting.
Voyager Passport: http://www.voyagerlearning.com/passport/index.jsp is a comprehensive K-5 reading intervention that meets the needs of all struggling readers. It was reviewed by Slavin, Cheung, Groff, and Lake (2008).
WiggleWorks: http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/wiggleworks/index.htm from Scholastic is a preK-3 reading, writing, and language skill development program that incorporates technology. It's based on principles of universal design for learning. There are multiple books in the series in a variety of genre, including fiction and non-fiction. Some are available in Spanish. Students can hear a book read aloud with music/sound accompaniments, read alone, and write about the stories they read or record their own narration, and more. Work can be saved.
Allington, R. (2007, May). Intervention all day long: New hope for struggling readers. National Council of Teachers of English: Voices from the Middle, 14(4), 7-14. Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org/journals/vm/issues/v14-4?source=gs
Biancarosa, G. (2012). Adolescent literacy: More than remediation. Educational Leadership, 69(6), 22-27.
Camilli, G., Vargas, S., and Yurecko, M. (2003, May 8). Teaching children to read: The fragile link between science and federal education policy. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11(15). Retrieved from http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/243
Chrisman, V. (2005). How schools sustain success. Educational Leadership, 62(5), 16-20.
Eaton, C. (2005). Sparking a revolution in teaching and learning. T.H.E. Journal, 32(13), 21-24.
Gersten, R., Compton, D., Connor, C. M., Dimino, J., Santoro, L., Linan-Thompson, S., & Tilly, W. D. (2009, February). Assisting students struggling with reading: Response to Intervention and multi-tier intervention for reading in the primary grades. A practice guide. (NCEE 2009-4045). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practiceguides/rti_reading_pg_021809.pdf or http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/publications/practiceguides/.
Liben, D., & Liben, M. (2012). The common core standards: Starting now. Educational Leadership, 70(4). Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/dec12/vol70/num04/The-Common-Core-Standards@-Starting-Now.aspx
Lyon, G. R. (2003, Spring). Reading disabilities: Why do some children have difficulty learning to read. Perspectives: The International Dyslexia Association's Quarterly Periodical, 29(2). Retrieved from http://www.dys-add.com/R.Lyon.WhyCantRead.pdf
Marzano, R. (2009). Six steps to better vocabulary instruction. Educational Leadership, 67(1), 83-84.
Shaywitz, S., & Shaywitz, B. (2007). What neuroscience really tells us about reading instruction. Educational Leadership, 64(5), 74-76.
Slavin, R. (2009, Spring). What works in teaching reading. Better: Evidence-based Education, 1(1),4-5. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University, Center for Research and Reform in Education. Retrieved from http://www.bestevidence.org
Slavin, R., Cheung, A., Groff, C., & Lake (2008). Effective reading programs for middle and high schools: A best-evidence synthesis. Reading Research Quarterly, 43(3), 290-322. Retrieved from http://www.bestevidence.org/word/mhs_read_Jul_2008_RRQ.pdf