Are you confused by terms that educators use? The ASCD Lexicon of Learning might be what you need.
Technology Integration is a four part series on essential questions, technology integration resources, web page design, and multimedia in projects. Sections contain relevant opening essays and resources.
Part 1: Essential Questions
Essential Questions (Page 2):
Part 2: Technology Integration Resources
Part 3: Web Page Design
Part 4: Multimedia in Projects
This question can be addressed from two perspectives--what we desire for all students, teachers, and providers of education in general and then specific to mathematics.
In Maximizing the Impact: "The Pivotal Role of Technology in a 21st Century Education System" (2007), the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), The Partnership for 21st Century Skills, and the State Educational Technology Directors Association stated that technology can be used in nine key areas to assist with teaching and learning:
Technology can be used for "information, images, interactions, and inquiry" (Quirk, in Pollock, 2007, p. 102). To this end, ISTE's (2007) release of National Educational Technology Standards for Students: The Next Generation indicates that to learn effectively and live productively in an increasingly digital world, students should know and be able to use technology for creativity and innovation; communication and collaboration; research and information fluency; critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making; digital citizenship; and technology operations and concepts. Students should be able to:
Mobile devices have the potential to support learning.
Students have their views on using mobile devices.
Mobile devices permeate our daily lives. The rise in student access to these electronic devices (e.g., cell phones, pagers, portable game units, laptops, MP3 players, smart phones, graphing calculators) has led to a national discussion about their potential to support learning in schools. According to selected findings from a national survey conducted by Project Tomorrow, titled Speak Up 2008 for Students, Teachers, Parents and Administrators, students in grades 6–12 have their views on how they want to use mobile devices in their schoolwork. If given the opportunity, they would use mobile devices to:
Leading educators have views on mobile devices.
View the video, Educating the Mobile Generation, in which Elliot Soloway of the University of Michigan and Cathie Norris of the University of North Texas share their road trip through Texas and Louisiana to see firsthand how mobile devices are being used in schools. Both are convinced it is inevitable that mobile devices will be mainstream in schools. According to Soloway, education in the 21st century will require a transformation from "learning what to learning how." There will be a range in models for change, but its evolution, not revolution. As one interviewed teacher stated, the goal of technology use is for promoting achievement, not to use technology for the sake of technology's availability. This video is part of a series of videos at the New Learning Institute on Technology and a 21st Century Education, sponsored by the Pearson Foundation.
While it might be inevitable that mobile learning devices will become mainstream, as Soloway and Norris predict, there are concerns about permitting their use in schools with invasion of privacy, cyberbullying, and cheating being examples of misuse. The Center for Education Policy and Law at the University of San Diego has tackled such concerns in its Electronic Communications Devices (ECDs) Project (October 2010). Educators will find the following resources from the project of particular value to help control student misuse of ECDs on and off campus:
Try a few math apps for your mobile phones.
Don't forget this reminder, however: Whenever considering to download any mobile application, you should first evaluate it. Pay attention to who developed the app, and the reviews that the app has received.
Math4Mobile offers five apps for teaching and learning mathematics on your mobile phone. They are free downloads and you can try them out online before downloading. They are: Graph2Go, a graphing calculator; Solve2Go for equations and inequalities; Quad2Go for learning about quadrilaterals; Sketch2Go, a qualitative graphing tool that includes seven icons to use in sketching graphs; and Fit2Go, a linear and quadratic function graphing tool and curve fitter.
Teachers and administrators also need to use technology. In the series of Technology Briefs for NCLB Planners, the Northeast and the Islands Regional Technology Consortium (NEIRTEC, 2002) presented Strategies for Improving Academic Achievement and Teacher Effectiveness:
"Such technologies as videoconferencing, online learning, networking, and instant messaging can support professional development and professional learning communities. Using technologies like these, educators can learn and collaborate with peers, mentors, experts and community members routinely. They can build ongoing professional relationships, develop capacity in teaching 21st century skills, benefit from just-in-time communications, and reduce the time and expense of travel" (Maximizing the Impact, 2007, p. 13).
"Technology can support administration in providing instructional leadership, managing learning environments and professional learning communities, and making decisions that support proficiency in 21st century skills. Networking technologies, for example, can support administrators in communicating with staff members, parents and community members. Data management systems enable states, districts and schools to make sense of the mountains of data they collect, monitor technology and other resources, and track trends in student achievement. In this sense, technology is a “data tool for education to better understand and inform educational and instructional decision making” (Maximizing the Impact, 2007, p. 13).
Teachers need more technological skills to be able to effectively integrate technology into classroom lessons, according to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO, 2008). In order to form some consensus about those skills, many of which were noted above, and to determine a plan for their acquisition, UNESCO and colleagues Cisco, Intel, Microsoft, the International Society for Technology in Education and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University set up the ICT Competency Standards for Teachers project. The ICT Competency Standards for Teachers (UNESCO, 2008) includes three booklets: (1) a policy framework, (2) the standards in modular format with a skill set matrix, and (3) implementation guidelines. The latter is actually a syllabus with detailed descriptions of the specific skills to be acquired by teachers within each skill set/module: policy, curriculum and assessment, pedagogy, the use of technology in the classroom, school organization and administration, and teacher professional development. It can serve as a basis for developing professional development programs and teacher education, and as a checklist for skills acquired.
Ted Hasselbring, Alan Lott, and Janet Zydney (2005) noted six purposes of technology use for supporting student mathematical learning and their development of declarative, procedural, and conceptual knowledge:
Elaborating on those, The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) (http://www.p21.org/) developed ICT Literacy Maps for core subject areas to illustrate how technology assists with attaining and utilizing 21st century skills. Representative ways that technology can be used in mathematics at grades 4, 8, and 12 are included. For example, thoughts derived from the Math ICT Literacy Map:
Newspapers, books, spreadsheets, graphing programs, calculators, computers, Internet, films, TV programs, Websites, databases, internet and digital libraries can help students gain information and media literacy. They are sources for the study of data analysis.
Word processing programs, graphic programs, presentation software, desktop publishing programs can help students gain communication skills. These are applicable for math projects.
Word processing software, manipulatives, calculators, graphing calculators, spreadsheet software, probes, GPS, and geometry tool software are useful for developing critical thinking and systems thinking. Use these tools when problem-solving, keeping journals of mathematical experiences, and creating graphical representations of data, for example.
Manipulatives, calculators, graphing calculators, Smart Boards, and presentation software help students to develop problem identification, formulation, and solution skills.
Digital cameras, laptop computers, multimedia presentation software, graphing calculators, probes/CBRs, Website development software can be used to enhance creativity and intellectual curiosity. For example, students might take photos showing geometry representations in their surroundings and create a math slide show.
Calculators, computers, newspapers, Internet, spreadsheet programs, presentation software, video equipment can help build interpersonal, self-direction, and collaborative skills. Students might create portfolios with examples of problem-solving situations in real life, or reflections on their problem-solving and thinking, and their understanding and learning of math concepts.
Internet, presentation software, word processing, desktop publishing can be used to communicate with students in other communities or countries, participate in national math competitions, or to discuss concepts with outside experts in online bulletin boards. These become tools for accountability and adaptability.
Internet, presentation software, newspapers can be used for community service projects, and for collecting data to be analyzed with math tools and then making reports on local issues. Such use enhances and develops social responsibility.
P21 in collaboration with the Mathematical Association of America, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, and dozens of math educators also developed The Math Map (2012), which provides connections between the Common Core State Standards and 21st Century Skills. Lesson plans, learning outcomes, and suggested tools for integrating the skills are provided with examples for grades 4, 8, and 12.
Visit Teaching NOW!, an online television and radio series that investigates the relationships between education and technology. The series, funded in part by the U.S. Department of Education, explores issues, ideas, and strategies surrounding education and teaching.
Mobile Devices: Facing Challenges and Opportunities for Learning
Read Dr. Patricia Deubel's commentary "Mobile Devices: Facing Challenges and Opportunities for Learning" featured March 19, 2009, in T.H.E. Journal.
In general, technology types used for learning might fall into nine categories, the selection of which would be determined by the content that is being taught, how it is taught, and a decision on what type of technology would best help in achieving instructional goals. Types include:
In addition, there are technologies specific for teaching mathematics, which can also enhance development of declarative, procedural, and conceptual knowledge. Mark Schneiderman (2006) identified the following courseware and digital content types:
Tutorials: Programs are used to introduce math concepts and then to provide practice, assessing learners as they progress. The primary focus is on identification of existing knowledge / formative assessment and acquisition of new information / development of new skill. The secondary focus is on application of new information / practice of new skill and demonstration of mastery / summative assessment.
Skill-Building / Drill & Practice: Unlike tutorials, these programs assume learners have some prior knowledge. The primary focus is on application of new information / practice of new skill. The secondary focus is on acquisition of new information / development of new skill and demonstration of mastery / summative assessment. There are levels of difficulty to meet learner needs, often with hints, explanations, and graphical representations. Programs are often in game format.
Comprehensive Courseware: Programs provide a core curriculum with support for the learning process and might combine tutorials, practice, and assessment. Skill mastery is tracked; a student data management and reporting system is often included to inform instruction.
Problem-Solving: Programs require learners to use specific math skills to solve challenges or puzzles. Focus is on application of new information / practice of new skill and refinement of meta-skills. Problems presented might have one correct answer and/or one solution path or multiple correct answers and paths.
Test Prep: These programs assess knowledge, particularly for standardized test preparation. The focus is on application of new information / practice of new skill and demonstration of mastery / summative assessment.
Simulations & Visualization: Multimedia simulations are often embedded in applications above, and can also be stand-alone. They can be used to help learners visualize and interactively explore concepts, and apply new conceptual knowledge to real-world situations. Some video-based simulations are less interactive. Focus is on acquisition of new information / development of new skill and application of new information / practice of new skill.
Educational or Serious Games: Schneiderman (2006) said this "new category of courseware is emerging designed around more authentic gaming concepts. These applications provide more immediate and ongoing feedback, require more concentrated and lengthy attention, allow repeated practice, motivate increased time on task, and employ a very leveled and contextual approach to building skills and knowledge" (p. 11). The primary focus is on acquisition of new information / development of new skill and application of new information / practice of new skill. Secondary focus on identification of existing knowledge / formative assessment, demonstration of mastery / summative assessment, and refinement of meta-skills.
New media, such as virtual worlds, gaming environments, blogs, wikis, intelligent agents, iPods, and MP3 files and players, constantly spring up to tempt educators to use them in instruction. According to Marc Prensky (2005), today's students (digital natives) have mastered a variety of tools and "[e]ducating or evaluating students without these tools makes no more sense to them than educating or evaluating a plumber without his or her wrench" (p. 12). Prensky indicated that their system of communication involves instant messaging, sharing information through blogs, buying and selling on eBay, exchanging through peer-to-peer technology, creating with Flash, meeting in 3D worlds, collecting via downloading, coordinating and collaborating through wikis, searching with Google, reporting via their camera phones, programming, socializing in chat rooms, and let us not forget learning via Web surfing. Their tools are just extensions of their brains.
The use of these new tools is among trends driving our global economy (Anderson, 2006). These tools "harness the wisdom of the crowd," enable "a shared culture of fandom, commentary, and camaraderie" to be developed, and ultimately are taking the Information Age to a new level, which Chris Anderson (2006) calls the "Age of Peer Production" (p. 132). We digital immigrants have a long way to go to learn their language and master their media. Teachers know it's not the medium, but instructional methods that cause learning. Consequently, according to David Roh (cited in O'Hanlon, 2009, p. 32), "There are hundreds of reasons why teachers don't want to use the [new] technology."
Resistance and what to do about it
While exact figures of how many teachers are not using technology in instruction are unknown, Charlene O'Hanlon (2009) pointed out that "anecdotal evidence from vendors and school districts alike indicates resistance to technology adoption is still a problem among a significant portion of the teacher population" (p. 32). They will resist if they are not shown the value that a technology will bring to the classroom, and if they are told they must use it and are given a deadline for doing so. Their resistance might also stem from a fear of students knowing more than they do about a particular technology, which might happen if they lack a firm grasp of the technology.
In any approach to integrating technology in instruction, O'Hanlon (2009) suggested that teachers need to be able to learn a technology gradually, and be given time to learn it. Comprehensive training from vendors with follow-up professional development and support within the district will help resolve the resistance issue, as will a peer-to-peer mentoring program. If all else fails, districts might even consider financial incentives for learning and adopting the technology. For some, all it might take to convince a teacher to give the technology a try is for them to see how using the technology impacts students, and to witness the excitement of the early adopters.
In a nutshell, elementary principal Rob Furman (2013) would most likely call overcoming resistance to technology integration as "Do It on Their T.E.R.M.S." -- a great phrase he posed indicating what teachers need: Time, Encouragement, Resources, Modeling, and Shared success.
Technology should not be implemented just for the sake of adopting technology. It must serve a role in learning. Joel Smith and Susan Ambrose (2004, online pp. 1-2) of Carnegie Mellon University posed seven questions to help educators think in a systematic way about how and when to incorporate any new pedagogical strategy, including media, into instruction. Their fundamental questions included:
What is the educational need, problem, or gap for which use of new media might potentially enhance learning?
Would the application of new media assess students' prior knowledge
and either provide the instructor with relevant information about students'
knowledge and skill level or provide help to students in acquiring the necessary
prerequisite knowledge and skills if their prior knowledge is weak?
Would the use of new media enhance students' organization of information given that organization determines retrieval and flexible use?
Would the use of new media actively engage students in purposeful practice that promotes deeper learning so that students focus on underlying principles, theories, models, and processes, and not the superficial features of problems?
Would the application of new media provide frequent, timely, and constructive feedback, given that learning requires accurate information on one's misconceptions, misunderstandings, and weaknesses?
Would the application of new media help learners develop the proficiency they need to acquire the skills of selective monitoring, evaluating, and adjusting their learning strategies? Some call these metacognitive skills.
Would the use of new media adjust to students' individual differences given that students are increasingly diverse in their educational backgrounds and preferred methods of learning?
If you can answer "yes" to one or more of the above questions when considering using a particular strategy or a new media, then your selection has a chance of making a difference in learning.
However, principles of universal design should also be considered when selecting media for use in an instructional program. Universal Design for Learning from the Center for Applied Technology calls for students to have multiple means of expression, representation, and engagement in their learning. Materials provide those elements and have scaffolds built in (Deubel, 2003).
For students with disabilities (e.g., vision, hearing, learning), technology use may pose unintended barriers to learning. Regular access to Closing the Gap, a Web site devoted to computer technology in special education and rehabilitation, will provide articles, product information, discussion forums, and other resources of value on accessibility.
As with any educational intervention, the effectiveness of technology depends upon the appropriate selection and implementation of that technology to meet teaching and learning goals. Once selected, technology-use must be a regular, integral part of an instructional program and not viewed as an add-on in order to have a positive effect on achievement (Deubel, 2001).
However, much thought goes into that selection and requires an understanding of the complex relationship among technology, pedagogy, and content. A change in any one of those three affects the other two, according to Punya Mishra and Matthew Koehler (2006). As such they indicated, "there is no single technological solution that applies for every teacher, every course, or every view of teaching" (p. 1029). Further, technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) is the basis of good teaching with technology. In order to make a technology selection that has a chance at being effective, the teacher needs to consider those TPACK factors in relation to each other and should have acquired:
an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face; knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge and to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones. (Mishra & Koehler, 2006, p. 1029)
Mark Schneiderman (2004), Director of Education Policy at the Software & Information Industry Association (SIIA), confirmed "education technology is neither inherently effective nor inherently ineffective; instead, its degree of effectiveness depends upon the congruence among the goals of instruction, characteristics of the learners, design of the software, and educator training and decision-making, among other factors" (p. 30). "Proper planning, teacher training, school leadership, technical support, configured hardware, network infrastructure and Internet access, pedagogy and instructional use, intensity of software use" (SIIA, 2009, p. 2) all play a role in an effective implementation.
Project RED (2010), a national research initiative, also contributed nine key technology implementation factors leading to academic success, specifically in reducing dropout rates, increasing graduation rates, reducing disciplinary actions and improving high-stakes test scores. Its survey involving 997 schools with varying levels of technology integration and diverse student populations revealed the following in rank order:
Further, in terms of selection, Steven Ross and Deborah Lowther (2009) indicated that given that a major goal in today's education is preparing students for higher education and careers, three forms of technology applications, which show promise for using "technology reflectively and scientifically to make teachers and curricula more effective," include "as a tutor, as a teaching aide, and as a learning tool" (p. 21). The first two of those help teachers to address individual needs, and the latter can help learners acquire 21st century skills such as "searching the Internet, creating graphs and illustrations, and communicating through multimedia presentations" (p. 21). As a tutor, computer assisted instruction can provide students with extra practice on key skills and content, provide remediation instruction, provide enrichment activities, and provide alternative ways to teach material for deeper learning. As a teaching aide, tools such as whiteboards enable teachers to better orchestrate their lessons; clicker response systems enable timely feedback to questions that teachers pose (pp. 20-21).
Vicki Hancock (1992) discussed the LOCATE Model (learners, outcomes, comparison, assembly, trial, and evaluation) for selecting and evaluating instructional media, which "is particularly helpful in considering electronic media, such as interactive laserdisc lessons, educational software, and CD-ROM applications" (para. 3). She provided a series of questions to consider when assessing media. According to this model, those who select media should consider the needs of the intended learners, and whether or not the outcomes of instruction require media. Potential media should be compared for authenticity, suitability, organization, technical quality, and special features. The assembly component requires gathering and ensuring that all components (e.g., hardware, software, room/environmental considerations, support staff/volunteers) are available so that the media will be totally usable by the learners. Hancock suggested a trial period before purchase to test the product with learners for their reactions and to determine if the product includes subject matter as intended. Evaluation should include "an appraisal of the materials themselves and of the methods used to integrate them into learning activities" (para. 9).
For additional reading on this topic, consider the complimentary e-book from Atomic Learning: Proven Approaches to Effective Tech Integration: Strategies & Solutions for School Leaders. This guide will also help school leaders to understand TPACK, the SAMR model, Bloom's Taxonomy, and more. Note, the SAMR (Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition) model was developed by Dr. Ruben Puentedura and offers a method of seeing how computer technology might impact teaching and learning. View the short YouTube video, SAMR in 120 Seconds.
The Great Debate: Effectiveness of Technology in Education
Read Dr. Patricia Deubel's commentary "The Great Debate: Effectiveness of Technology in Education" featured November 8, 2007, in T.H.E. Journal.
The following activities should help convince you to give technology a try.
Watch online videos of preK-12 teachers applying the learning model "Technology as a Facilitator of Quality Education" at IN TIME (Integrating New Technologies Into the Methods of Education). IN TIME's mission is to use the "latest research on the use of standards to improve learning as well as the most contemporary strategies available from cognitive psychology and learning research." The project was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education's PT3 (Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology) program.
See the Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) developed for K-12 teachers in Florida. The TIM has 25 cells created by associating five levels of technology integration (entry, adoption, adaptation, infusion, and transformation) and five characteristics of meaningful learning environments (active, collaborative, constructive, authentic, and goal directed). Each cell includes a link to one or more videos that show technology integration in classrooms where only a few computers are available and/or classrooms where every student has access to a computer. Descriptions of projects learners did and technology requirements are provided so that others might use the same project in their classrooms.
Read the online book: Orey, M.(Ed.). (2001). Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/ This book is freely available online with articles, videos, animations, narrations, and images on learning and cognitive theories, instructional theories and models, inquiry and direct instruction strategies, and more. It's continually updated. You'll also find discussion on technology tools for teaching and learning.
HOT: The National Leadership Institute Technology Toolkit: States Helping States Implement NCLB: http://www.setda.org/ . The U.S. Department of Education and the State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) released this toolkit in April, 2003, to help states implement the technology requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act. The toolkit contains resources and best practices on topics including:
Anderson, C. (2006, July). People power: Blogs, user reviews, photo-sharing--the peer production era has arrived. Wired, 132.
Deubel, P. (2003). An investigation of behaviorist and cognitive approaches to instructional multimedia design. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia,12(1), 63-90. Retrieved from http://www.ct4me.net/multimedia_design.htm
Deubel, P. (2001, Summer). The effectiveness of mathematics software for Ohio proficiency test preparation [Online]. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 33(5).
Furman, R. (2013, November 6). Do it on their T.E.R.M.S. [Weblog post]. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rob-furman/do-it-on-their-terms_b_4219125.html
Hancock, V. (1992). LOCATE: Matching media with instruction. ASCD Curriculum/Technology Quarterly, 1(4), 1-2.
Hasselbring, T. S., Lott, A. C., & Zydney, J. M. (2005). Technology-supported math instruction for students with disabilities: Two decades of research and development. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from http://www.cited.org/index.aspx?page_id=13
Hubbell, E. R., & Miller, K. (2013, March 14). Common core quick start: Incorporating digital devices into common core lessons. ASCD Express, 8(12). Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/ascd-express/vol8/812-hubbell.aspx
International Society for Technology in Education (2007). National educational technology standards for students: The next generation. Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/standards/standards-for-students
Maximizing the Impact: "The Pivotal Role of Technology in a 21st Century Education System" (2007). A report from the International Society for Technology in Education, The Partnership for 21st Century Skills, and the State Educational Technology Directors Association. Retrieved from http://www.setda.org/web/guest/maximizingimpactreport
Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054. Retrieved from http://punya.educ.msu.edu/publications/journal_articles/mishra-koehler-tcr2006.pdf
Northeast and the Islands Regional Technology Consortium (2002). Technology briefs for NCLB planners. Education Development Center, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.neirtec.org/products/techbriefs/index_html.asp
O'Hanlon, C. (2009). Resistance is futile. T.H.E. Journal, 36(3), 32-36.
Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2012). P21 Math Map. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/
Pollock, J. E. (2007). Improving student learning one teacher at a time. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Prensky, M. (2005). Listen to the natives. Educational Leadership, 63(4), 9-13.
Project RED. (2010). Project RED key findings. ISTE 2010 presentation, June 28, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.projectred.org/about.html
Project Tomorrow (2009, March 24). Selected national findings: Speak Up 2008 for students, teachers, parents and administrators. Retrieved from http://www.tomorrow.org/speakup/pdfs/SU08_findings_final_mar24.pdf
Ross, S., & Lowther, D. (2009, Fall). Effectively using technology in instruction. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University, Better: Evidenced-based Education, 20-21. Retrieved from http://www.betterevidence.org
Schneiderman, M. (2006, November 6). Software & Information Industry Association: Written testimony of Mark Schneiderman before the U.S. Department of Education’s national math panel. Palo Alto, CA. Retrieved from http://www.siia.net/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=1040&tmpl=component&format=raw&Itemid=318
Schneiderman, M. (2004, June). What does SBR mean for educational technology? T.H.E. Journal, 31(11), 30-36.
Smith, J. M., & Ambrose, S. (2004, June 3). The "newest media" and a principled approach for integrating technology into instruction. Retrieved from http://campustechnology.com/Articles/2004/06/The-Newest-Media-and-a-Principled-Approach-for-Integrating-Technology-Into-Instruction.aspx
Software & Information Industry Association (2009, March 9). Software implementation checklist for educators. Washington, DC: SIIA. Retrieved from http://www.siia.net [Use keyword search: checklist].
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (2008). ICT competency standards for teachers. Retrieved from http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=25740&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
Wilson, L. (2010). Crisis: Technology implementation in schools [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.guide2digitallearning.com/blog_leslie_wilson/crisis_technology_implementation_schools
See other Technology Integration pages: